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Frame Relay


WAN Technology


PPP stands for Point to Point Protocol . Establishing The connection between two points is called Point to Point Protocol. PPP comes into play when you establish a connection to your ISP (Internet Service Provider) via a modem. The name PPP comes from the fact that when you are connected to your ISP, the ISP and you make up two points on the network hence the protocol that is used to get things `happening' between the two of you is the Point to Point protocol or the PPP.

The PPP allows different types of protocols to function on its platform and on the same link. The PPP provides three methods of authentication; one is the Password Authentication Protocol that uses a password to authenticate or the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol which uses the handshake of the server with the dial up as an authentication and EAP

Difference between PAP and CHAP



1. Clear text

1. Encrypted

2. Less secure

2. High secure

3. Two way handshake method

  • Auth. Request
  • Auth. Acknowledgment

3. Three way handshake method

  • Challenge
  • Response
  • Success

4. No periodic Check up

4. Periodical Check up


Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is most commonly used for authentication on wireless networks

PPP Frames

There are many protocols that are included in the PPP frame that work in send and receive data on a network. The packages of data that are being sent and received on the network is called frame. The Point to Point Protocol usually follows a general and a standard format for all the frames that it sends or receives.

The Point to Point Protocol follows specified set of formats for different purposes on the network. The formats that are commonly used by the Point to Point Protocol are Link Control Protocol, and other authentication protocols like PAP and CHAP. The Point to Point Protocol also has a varied version called the PPP multilink protocol. All these protocols are used to transport the small bits of data over the link.

16 - 32 bits 
  • Flag - indicates the beginning or end of a frame, consists of the binary sequence 01111110.
  • Address - contains the binary sequence 11111111, the standard broadcast address. (Note: PPP does not assign individual station addresses.)
  • Control - contains the binary sequence 00000011, which calls for transmission of user data in an unsequenced frame.
  • Protocol - identify the protocol encapsulated in the information field of the frame.
  • Information - Zero or more octet(s), contain the datagram for the protocol specified in the protocol field.
  • FCS - Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field, normally 16 bits. By prior agreement, consenting PPP implementations can use a 32-bit FCS for improved error detection.

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