DHCP Interview Questions

By | June 7, 2020

1. What is DHCP?
DHCP stands for “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol”.

2. What is DHCP’s purpose?
DHCP’s purpose is to enable individual computers on an IP network to extract their configurations from a server (the ‘DHCP server’) or servers, in particular, servers that have no exact information about the individual computers until they request the information. The overall purpose of this is to reduce the work necessary to administer a large IP network. The most significant piece of information distributed in this manner is the IP address.

3. What is a DHCP lease?
A DHCP lease is the amount of time that the DHCP server grants to the DHCP client permission to use a particular IP address. A typical server allows its administrator to set the lease time.

4. How long should a lease be?
A very relevant factor is that the client starts trying to renew the lease when it is halfway through: thus, for example, with a 4 day lease, the client which has lost access to its DHCP server has 2 days from when it first tries to renew the lease until the lease expires and the client must stop using the network. During a 2- day outage, new users cannot get new leases, but no lease will expire for any computer turned on at the time that the outage commences. Another factor is that the longer the lease the longer time it takes for client configuration changes controlled by DHCP to propagate.

5. Can DHCP support statically defined addresses?
Yes. At least there is nothing in the protocol to preclude this and one expects it to be a feature of any DHCP server. This is really a server matter and the client should work either way. The RFC refers to this as manual allocation.

6. What is a MAC address?
A MAC address (also called an Ethernet address or an IEEE MAC address) is a number (typically written as twelve hexadecimal digits, 0 through 9 and A through F, or as six hexadecimal numbers separated by periods or colons, i.e. 0080002012ef, 0:80:0:2:20:ef) which uniquely identifes a computer that has an Ethernet interface. Unlike the IP number, it includes no indication of where your computer is located. In DHCP’s typical use, the server uses a requesting computer’s MAC address to uniquely identify it.

7. Can a DHCP server back up another DHCP server?
You can have two or more servers handing out leases for different addresses. If each has a dynamic pool accessible to the same clients, then even if one server is down, one of those clients can lease an address from the other server. However, without communication between the two servers to share their information on current leases, when one server is down, any client with a lease from it will not be able to renew their lease with the other server. Such communication is the purpose of the “server to server protocol”. It is possible that some server vendors have addressed this issue with their own proprietary server-to-server communication.

8. What protocol and port does DHCP use?
DHCP, like BOOTP runs over UDP, utilizing ports 67 and 68.

9. What is IP Reservation in DHCP?
A DHCP reservation is a permanent IP address assignment. It is a specific IP address within a DHCP scope that is permanently reserved for leased use to a specific DHCP client. Users can configure a DHCP reservation in their DHCP server when they need to reserve a permanent IP address assignment.

10. What is Scope & SuperScope in dhcp?
Scope:- A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) scope is the consecutive range of possible IP addresses that the DHCP server can lease to clients on a subnet. Scopes typically define a single physical subnet on your network to which DHCP services are offered.

SuperScope:- A superscope allows a DHCP server to provide leases from more than one scope to clients on a single physical network. Before you can create a superscope, you must use DHCP Manager to define all scopes to be included in the superscope. Scopes added to a superscope are called member scopes. Superscopes can resolve DHCP service issues in several different ways; these issues include situations in which:
– Support is needed for DHCP clients on a single physical network segment—such as a single Ethernet LAN segment—where multiple logical IP networks are used. When more than one logical IP network is used on a physical network, these configurations are also known as multinets.
– The available address pool for a currently active scope is nearly depleted and more computers need to be added to the physical network segment.
– Clients need to be migrated to a new scope.
– Support is needed for DHCP clients on the other side of BOOTP relay agents, where the network on the other side of the relay agent has multiple logical subnets on one physical network.

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