Windows Active Directory 2008 R2 Interview Questions and Answers
>What are the Groups types available in active directory ? Security groups: Use Security groups for granting permissions to gain access to resources. Sending an e-mail message to a group sends the message to all members of the group. Therefore security groups share the capabilities of distribution groups.
Distribution groups: Distribution groups are used for sending e-main messages to groups of users. You cannot grant permissions to security groups. Even though security groups have all the capabilities of distribution groups, distribution groups still requires, because some applications can only read distribution groups.
>Explain about the groups scope in AD ? Domain Local Group: Use this scope to grant permissions to domain resources that are located in the same domain in which you created the domain local group. Domain local groups can exist in all mixed, native and interim functional level of domains and forests. Domain local group memberships are not limited as you can add members as user accounts, universal and global groups from any domain. Just to remember, nesting cannot be done in domain local group. A domain local group will not be a member of another Domain Local or any other groups in the same domain.
Global Group: Users with similar function can be grouped under global scope and can be given permission to access a resource (like a printer or shared folder and files) available in local or another domain in same forest. To say in simple words, Global groups can be use to grant permissions to gain access to resources which are located in any domain but in a single forest as their memberships are limited. User accounts and global groups can be added only from the domain in which global group is created. Nesting is possible in Global groups within other groups as you can add a global group into another global group from any domain. Finally to provide permission to domain specific resources (like printers and published folder), they can be members of a Domain Local group. Global groups exist in all mixed, native and interim functional level of domains and forests.
Universal Group Scope: These groups are precisely used for email distribution and can be granted access to resources in all trusted domain as these groups can only be used as a security principal (security group type) in a windows 2000 native or windows server 2003 domain functional level domain. Universal group memberships are not limited like global groups. All domain user accounts and groups can be a member of universal group. Universal groups can be nested under a global or Domain Local group in any domain.
>What is REPLMON ?
The Microsoft definition of the Replmon tool is as follows;
This GUI tool enables administrators to view the low-level status of Active Directory replication, force synchronization between domain controllers, view the topology in a graphical format, and monitor the status and performance of domain controller replication.
>What is ADSIEDIT ?
ADSIEDIT :ADSIEdit is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that acts as a low-level editor for Active Directory. It is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool. Network administrators can use it for common administrative tasks such as adding, deleting, and moving objects with a directory service. The attributes for each object can be edited or deleted by using this tool. ADSIEdit uses the ADSI application programming interfaces (APIs) to access Active Directory. The following are the required files for using this tool: ADSIEDIT.DLL
>What is NETDOM ?
NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust relationships. It is used for batch management of trusts, joining computers to domains, verifying trusts, and secure channels.
>What is REPADMIN?
This command-line tool assists administrators in diagnosing replication problems between Windows domain controllers.Administrators can use Repadmin to view the replication topology (sometimes referred to as RepsFrom and RepsTo) as seen from the perspective of each domain controller. In addition, Repadmin can be used to manually create the replication topology (although in normal practice this should not be necessary), to force replication events between domain controllers, and to view both the replication metadata and up-to-dateness vectors.
>How to take backup of AD ?
For taking backup of active directory you have to do this :
first go START -> PROGRAM ->ACCESORIES -> SYSTEM TOOLS -> BACKUP OR Open run window and ntbackup and take systemstate backup
when the backup screen is flash then take the backup of SYSTEM STATE it will take the backup of all the necessary information about the syatem including AD backup , DNS ETC.
>What are the DS* commands ?
The following DS commands: the DS family built in utility .
DSmod - modify Active Directory attributes.
DSrm - to delete Active Directory
DSmove - to relocate
objects DSadd - create new accounts
DSquery - to find objects that match your query
DSget - list the properties of an object
>What is ad ds replication ?
Active Directory database is replicated between domain controllers. The data replicated between controllers called "data" are also called "naming context". Only the changes are replicated, once a domain controller has been established. Active Directory uses a multimaster model which means changes can be made on any controller and the changes are sent to all other controllers. The replication path in Active Directory forms a ring which adds reliability to the replication.
>What Intrasite and Intersite Replication ?
Intrasite is the replication with in the same site & intersite the replication between sites.
> What are the roles of global catalog ?
1. Finds objects
2. Supplies user principal name authentication
3. Supplies universal group membership information in a multiple domain environment
4. Validates object references within a forest :- validate references to objects of other domains in the forest.
>What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server?
An NTFS partition with enough free space.
An Administrator's username and password.
The correct operating system version.
A NIC Properly configured TCP/IP (IP address, subnet mask and - optional - default gateway).
A network connection (to a hub or to another computer via a crossover cable) .
An operational DNS server (which can be installed on the DC itself) .
A Domain name that you want to use .
The Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 CD media (or at least the i386 folder) .