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Windows Active Directory Interview Questions Collections!

> What is the Recommended Maximum Number of Domains in a Forest ?
For Windows 2000 Server, the recommended maximum number of domains in a forest is 800. For Windows Server 2003, the recommended maximum number of domains when the forest functional level is set to Windows Server 2003 (also known as forest functional level 2) is 1,200. This restriction is a limitation of multivalued, nonlinked attributes in Windows Server 2003.

> What is the Recommended Maximum Number of Domain Controllers in a Domain ?
To ensure reliable recovery of SYSVOL, we recommend a limit of 1200 domain controllers per domain.

> Active Directory Replication Topology Options
The Active Directory replication topologies typically utilized are:

Ring Topology: With intrasite replication, the KCC creates a ring topology that defines the replication paths within a site. In a ring topology, each domain controller in a site has two inbound and outbound replication partners. The KCC creates the ring so that there is no greater than three hops between domain controllers in a site.
Full Mesh Topology: This topology is typically utilized in small organizations where redundancy is extremely important and the number of sites is quite small. A full mesh topology is quite expensive to manage and is not scalable.
Hub And Spoke Topology: This topology is typically implemented in large organizations where scalability is important and redundancy is less important. In this topology, one or multiple hub sites exist that have slower WAN connections to multiple spoke sites. The hub sites are usually connected to each other through high speed WAN connections.
Hybrid Topology: The hybrid topology is a combination of any of the above topologies.

> What is SPN ?
A service principal name (SPN) is the name by which a client uniquely identifies an instance of a service. If you install multiple instances of a service on computers throughout a forest, each instance must have its own SPN. A given service instance can have multiple SPNs if there are multiple names that clients might use for authentication. For example, an SPN always includes the name of the host computer on which the service instance is running, so a service instance might register an SPN for each name or alias of its host. services.

> What is AD Certificate Services ?
Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) provides customizable services for issuing and managing public key certificates used in software security systems that employ public key technologies.

> What is Active Directory Federation Services ?
Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) simplifies access to systems and applications using a claims-based access (CBA) authorization mechanism to maintain application security. AD FS supports Web single-sign-on (SSO) technologies that help information technology (IT) organizations collaborate across organizational boundaries.

AD FS 2.0 is a downloadable Windows Server 2008 update that is the successor to AD FS 1.0, which was first delivered in Windows Server 2003 R2, and AD FS 1.1, which was made available as a server role in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Previous versions of AD FS are referred to collectively as AD FS 1.x.

> What is the Active Directory Management Gateway Service ?
Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces a web service interface for application accessibility to Active Directory (AD), and the Windows Server 2008 R2 AD PowerShell cmdlets use this service.

ADMGS provides this web service interface for Windows Server 2003 SP2 and Windows Server 2008 domain controllers (DCs). The service lets Server 2008 R2 AD PowerShell cmdlets and other applications work against the DCs with ADMGS installed.

> What is Offline Domain Join ?
Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers include a new feature named Offline Domain Join. A new utility named Djoin.exe lets you join a computer to a domain, without contacting a domain controller while completing the domain join operation, by obtaining a blob from a Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controller at an earlier point in time. The computer is domain-joined when it first starts, so no restart is needed as with a normal domain join.

> What is AD Administrative Center ?
Active Directory Administrative Center provides network administrators with an enhanced Active Directory data management experience and a rich graphical user interface (GUI). Administrators can use Active Directory Administrative Center to perform common Active Directory object management tasks (such as user, computer, group, and organization units management) through both data-driven and task-oriented navigation.

Administrators can use the enhanced Active Directory Administrative Center GUI to customize Active Directory Administrative Center to suite their particular directory service administering requirements.

> What is AD DS Best Practices Analyzer ?
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) Best Practices Analyzer (BPA) is a server management tool that can help you implement best practices in the configuration of your Active Directory environment. AD DS BPA scans the AD DS server role as it is installed on your Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers, and it reports best practice violations.

You can filter or exclude results from AD DS BPA reports that you do not need to see. You can also perform AD DS BPA tasks by using either the Server Manager graphical user interface (GUI) or cmdlets in the Windows PowerShell command-line interface.

> What is the Recommended Maximum Number of Users in a Group ?
For Windows 2000 Active Directory environments, the recommended maximum number of members in a group is 5,000. This recommendation is based on the number of concurrent atomic changes that can be committed in a single database transaction.

Starting with Windows Server 2003, the ability to replicate discrete changes to linked multivalued properties was introduced as a technology called Linked Value Replication (LVR). To enable LVR, you must increase the forest functional level to at least Windows Server 2003 interim. Increasing the forest functional level changes the way that group membership (and other linked multivalued attributes) is stored in the database and replicated between domain controllers. This allows the number of group memberships to exceed the former recommended limit of 5,000 for Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 at a forest functional level of Windows 2000.

So far, testing in this area has yet to reveal any new recommended limits to the number of members in a group or any other linked multivalued attribute. Production environments have been reported to exceed 4 million members, and Microsoft scalability testing reached 500 million members.

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