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Solaris 10 Interview Questions

> What is difference between Hard and Soft mount?
Hardmount:Normal file system mount used mainly for mounting local file systems.
Once a file system is hard mounted, can use a normal filesystem untill
its umount.

Soft mount:It allows automatic unmounting if the filesystem is idle for a specified timeout
period. It is mainly used for network filesystems like NFS It can be configured
using Autofs and the network filesystem can be soft mounted.

> Which command to lock the user Account?
# lk username

> How to boot the solaris system in 64 0r 32 bit kernel ?
For 64 bit
# eeprom boot-file="/kernel/sparc9/unix
OK printenv boot-file
OK settenv boot-file kernel/sparc9/unix

For 32 bit
# eeprom boot-file="/kernel/unix
OK printenv boot-file
OK settenv boot-file kernel/unix

> What are processing daemon in nis ?

> What are the daemons in nis server ?

> Explain RAID0, RAID1, RAID3, & RAID5 ?
RAID 0 Concatenation/Striping
RAID 1 Mirroring
RAID 5-Striped array with rotating parity.

Concatenation: Concatenation is joining of two or more disk slices to add up the disk space. Concatenation is serial in nature i.e. sequential data operations are performed serially on first disk then second disk and so on. Due to serial nature new slices can be added up without having to take the backup of entire concatenated volume, adding slice and restoring backup.
Striping: Spreading of data over multiple disk drives mainly to enhance the performance by distributing data in alternating chunks - 16 k interleave across the stripes. Sequential data operations are performed in parallel on all the stripes by reading/writing 16k data blocks alternatively form the disk stripes.
Mirroring: Mirroring provides data redundancy by simultaneously writing data on to two sub mirrors of a mirrored device. A submirror can be a stripe or concatenated volume and a mirror can have three mirrors. Main concern here is that a mirror needs as much as the volume to be mirrored.
RAID 5: RAID 5 provides data redundancy and advantage of striping and uses less space than mirroring. A RAID 5 is made up of at least three disks, which are striped with parity information written alternately on all the disks. In case of a single disk failure the data can be rebuild using the parity information from the remaining disks.

> Where will be the configuration for metadevice ?

> How to grow disk size in SDS ?
1.Identified the free disks and the volumes size and meta device name
#df –h
/dev/md/dsk/d19 27G 1.5G 25G 6% /rpbkup

2.Increase the /rpbkup by 10Gb
# metattach d19 c4t50060E80000000000000818D00000009d0

3.Verify the volume size
#metastat d19

4.Increase the file system /rpbkup by 10Gb
# /usr/sbin/growfs -M /rpbkup /dev/md/rdsk/d19

5.Verify the file system
# df-h

> How to do the disk cloning on solaris ?
Here is the procedure
1.install the disk
you can do this few ways, let's the scenario be, the disk is already attached and its been label through format.
2.If primary disk is u r c1t0d0s2
#dd if=/dev/dsk/c1t0d0s2 of=/dev/dsk/c1t1d0s2 bs=256k
This will take time, depends on the size of the primary disk
3.verfy the clone disk has a clean filesystem, for that
#fsck -y /dev/rdsk/c1t1d0s0
4.To verify that mount the clone disk
#mount /dev/dsk/c1t1d0s0 /mnt
5.change the /etc/vfstab to point to the clone device
#vi /mnt/etc/vfstab
After making changes, boot the clone disk -----Done

> What is the physical device to check the 2 nodes connect in cluster ?
Physical fiber cable which is connect to the 2 nodes is called a HTEARTBEAT

> How will you take ufsdump and ufsrestore in a sing command line ?
# ufsdump 0f - /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6 | (cd /mnt/haz ufsrestore xf -)

> To check the status of the media inseted on the tape drive ?
# mt /dev/rmt/0 status

> Syntex to execute a ufsdump ?
# ufsdump 0uf /dev/rmt/1

> Difference between ufs and tar commnad ?
1. Used for complete file system backup.
2. It copies every thing from regular files in a file system to special character and block
device files.
3. It can work on mounted or unmounted file systems.

1. Used for single or multiple files backup.
2. Can't backup special character & block device files.
3. Works only on mounted file system.

> What is different between crontab and at command?
Crontab: job can be scheduled
At: Job can be a run once only

What is difference between incremental backup and differential backup?
Incremental: Only those files will be included which have been changed since the last backup.
Differential: Only those files will be included which have been changed since the last Full backup

> How many ufsdump level ?
0-9 level
0 = Full Backup
1-9 = Incremental backup of file,That have changed since the last lower level backup.

Options in ufsdump
S = size estimate amount of space need on tape
L = auto loaded
O = offline once the backup completed & if possible to eject the media
U = update the /etc/dumpdates files (Indicate:Name of the file system,Level of the backup 0-9,Date.
F = specified the tape devices name

Options in ufsrestore
T= list the content of the media
R =restore entire file system
X = restore only the file named on the command line
I = interactive mode
V = verbose mode
F = specified the tape devices name

> Disaster recovery steps if OS corrupted ?
Ok boot cdrom –s
# newfs /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0
# mkdir a
# mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 /a
# cd a
# ufsrestore rf /dev/rmt/0
# rm restoresymtable
# cd /usr/platform/'uname-m/lib/fs/ufs
# installboot bootblk /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0
# cd /
# umount /a
# fsck /dev/rdsm/c0t0d0s0
# init 6

from the OK prompt, execute
OK> boot -r

> How will you comment error line in /etc/system file ?
# Vi /etc/system
(To comment the error line in /etc/system files, we have to use *)

> How many replicas should be for raid5 in sds if I have 5 disk ?
No of Hard Devices No of State Database Replicas to created
One Three, all on one slice
Two-four Two on each drive
Five or more One on each drive

> Cannot open '/etc/path_to_inst'" ?
System can not find the /etc/path_to_install file .It might be missing or corrupted and needs to be rebuild.
To rebuild this file boot the system with -ar option :
ok>boot -ar

Press enter to select default values for the questions asked during booting and select yes to rebuild /etc/path_to_install
The /etc/path_to_inst on your system does not exist or is empty. Do you want to rebuild this file [n]? y
system will continue booting after rebuilding the file.

> What is mean by paging & server average time ?
If a disk shows consistently high reads/writes along with , the percentage busy (%b) of the disks is greater than 5 percent, and the average service time (svc_t) is greater than 30 milliseconds, then one of the following action needs to be taken

Is it possible to edit the corntab using vi
It is not recommended but it is possible by editing
# vi /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root
The command to edit the crontab is
#crontab -e

> Is it possible to create swap in new harddisk without format ?
" No " without label the drive, you can't do anything

> What is an alternative to the "top" command on Solaris?
# prstat –a

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