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ORACLE 11g R2 Interview Questions with Answers

> What is Cache Fusion ?
Transfor of data across instances through private interconnect is called cachefusion.Oracle RAC is composed of two or more instances. When a block of data is read from datafile by an instance within the cluster and another instance is in need of the same block,it is easy to get the block image from the insatnce which has the block in its SGA rather than reading from the disk. To enable interinstance communication Oracle RAC makes use of interconnects. The Global Enqueue Service(GES) monitors and Instance enqueue process manages the cahce fusion.

> What is SCAN ? (11gR2 feature)
Single Client Access Name (SCAN) is s a new Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) 11g Release 2 feature that provides a single name for clients to access an Oracle Database running in a cluster. The benefit is clients using SCAN do not need to change if you add or remove nodes in the cluster.

SCAN provides a single domain name via (DNS), allowing and-users to address a RAC cluster as-if it were a single IP address. SCAN works by replacing a hostname or IP list with virtual IP addresses (VIP).

Single client access name (SCAN) is meant to facilitate single name for all Oracle clients to connect to the cluster database, irrespective of number of nodes and node location. Until now, we have to keep adding multiple address records in all clients tnsnames.ora, when a new node gets added to or deleted from the cluster.

Single Client Access Name (SCAN) eliminates the need to change TNSNAMES entry when nodes are added to or removed from the Cluster. RAC instances register to SCAN listeners as remote listeners. Oracle recommends assigning 3 addresses to SCAN, which will create 3 SCAN listeners, though the cluster has got dozens of nodes.. SCAN is a domain name registered to at least one and up to three IP addresses, either in DNS (Domain Name Service) or GNS (Grid Naming Service). The SCAN must resolve to at least one address on the public network.

> What are SCAN components in a cluster ?
1.SCAN Name
2.SCAN IPs (3)
3.SCAN Listeners (3)

> What is FAN ?
Fast application Notification as it abbreviates to FAN relates to the events related to instances,services and nodes.This is a notification mechanism that Oracle RAc uses to notify other processes about the configuration and service level information that includes service status changes such as,UP or DOWN events.Applications can respond to FAN events and take immediate action.

> What is TAF ?
TAF (Transparent Application Failover) is a configuration that allows session fail-over between different nodes of a RAC database cluster. Transparent Application Failover (TAF). If a communication link failure occurs after a connection is established, the connection fails over to another active node. Any disrupted transactions are rolled back, and session properties and server-side program variables are lost. In some cases, if the statement executing at the time of the failover is a Select statement, that statement may be automatically re-executed on the new connection with the cursor positioned on the row on which it was positioned prior to the failover.

After an Oracle RAC node crashes—usually from a hardware failure—all new application transactions are automatically rerouted to a specified backup node. The challenge in rerouting is to not lose transactions that were "in flight" at the exact moment of the crash.

One of the requirements of continuous availability is the ability to restart in-flight application transactions, allowing a failed node to resume processing on another server without interruption. Oracle's answer to application failover is a new Oracle Net mechanism dubbed Transparent Application Failover. TAF allows the DBA to configure the type and method of failover for each Oracle Net client. TAF architecture offers the ability to restart transactions at either the transaction (SELECT) or session level.

> What are the requirements for Oracle Clusterware ?
1. External Shared Disk to store Oracle Cluster ware file (Voting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry – OCR)
2. Two netwrok cards on each cluster ware node (and three set of IP address) -
Network Card 1 (with IP address set 1) for public network
Network Card 2 (with IP address set 2) for private network (for inter node communication between rac nodes used by clusterware and rac database)
IP address set 3 for Virtual IP (VIP) (used as Virtual IP address for client connection and for connection failover)
3. Storage Option for OCR and Voting Disk – RAW, OCFS2 (Oracle Cluster File System), NFS, …..
Which enable the load balancing of applications in RAC?
Oracle Net Services enable the load balancing of application connections across all of the instances in an Oracle RAC database.

> How to find location of OCR file when CRS is down ?
If you need to find the location of OCR (Oracle Cluster Registry) but your CRS is down.
When the CRS is down:
Look into "ocr.loc" file, location of this file changes depending on the OS:
On Linux: /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
On Solaris: /var/opt/oracle/ocr.loc
When CRS is UP:
Set ASM environment or CRS environment then run the below command:
ocrcheck

> In 2 node RAC, how many NIC's are r using ?
2 network cards on each clusterware node
Network Card 1 (with IP address set 1) for public network
Network Card 2 (with IP address set 2) for private network (for inter node communication between rac nodes used by clusterware and rac database)

> In 2 node RAC, how many IP's are r using ?
6 – 3 set of IP address
## eth1-Public: 2
## eth0-Private: 2
## VIP: 2

> How to find IP's information in RAC ?
Edit the /etc/hosts file as shown below:
# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that requires network functionality will fail.
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
## Public Node names
192.168.10.11 node1-pub.hingu.net node1-pub
192.168.10.22 node2-pub.hingu.net node2-pub
## Private Network (Interconnect)
192.168.0.11 node1-prv node1-prv
192.168.0.22 node2-prv node2-prv
## Private Network (Network Area storage)
192.168.1.11 node1-nas node1-nas
192.168.1.22 node2-nas node2-nas
192.168.1.33 nas-server nas-server
## Virtual IPs
192.168.10.111 node1-vip.hingu.net node1-vip
192.168.10.222 node2-vip.hingu.net node2-vip

> What is difference between RAC ip addresses ?
Public IP adress is the normal IP address typically used by DBA and SA to manage storage, system and database. Public IP addresses are reserved for the Internet.
Private IP address is used only for internal clustering processing (Cache Fusion) (aka as interconnect). Private IP addresses are reserved for private networks.
VIP is used by database applications to enable fail over when one cluster node fails. The purpose for having VIP is so client connection can be failover to surviving nodes in case there is failure.

> Can application developer access the private ip ?
No. private IP address is used only for internal clustering processing (Cache Fusion) (aka as interconnect)

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